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TONY GARNIER

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An "Industrial City"









Tony Garnier designs the plans of an ideal city, called “An industrial city” during his stay at “Villa Médicis” (1899-1904). Published in 1917, it is a milestone in the 20th century history of architecture and urban planning.

Tony Garnier will be rebuked many times by the French Academy for not dedicating his full energy to his research project, “Tusculum” which concerned the reconstitution of a Roman city. He dedicated himself instead to avant-garde ideas, by working on his modern city project, designed for about 35.000 inhabitants.

The “Industrial City” of Tony Garnier, which can be compared to a city of labor, illustrates the ideas of Fourier.

Tony Garnier located it in a place that can be identified as being in Saint-Etienne area (near by Saint-Chamont / Rive-de-Gier), which was heavily industrialized at the beginning of the 20th century.

Going against urban conceptions of his time, the architect developed the zoning concept, dividing the city into four main functions: work, housing, health, leisure.

The city is located on a rocky headland, the industrial area being clearly separated from it and located down the headland, at the confluence of a river.

Four main principles emerge: functionnalism, space, greenery, and high sunshine exposure.